did catherine de medici have a daughter named clarissa (2023)

16th-century Italian noblewoman and queen consort of France, Consorts to debatable or disputed rulers are in. She was closely involved in the planning and supervising of all her architectural schemes. Catherine de' Medici married Henry, Duke of Orlans, the future Henry II of France, in Marseille on 28 October 1533. The chronicler L'Estoile reported that she cried all through her lunch that day. Henry IV was later reported to have said of Catherine: I ask you, what could a woman do, left by the death of her husband with five little children on her arms, and two families of France who were thinking of grasping the crownour own [the Bourbons] and the Guises? At first Catherine kept him very close to her, and even slept in his chamber. [43] Others they drowned in the river or strung up around the battlements while Catherine and the court watched. Catherine de Medici was best known for being the queen consort of Henry II of France (154759) and regent of France. He was also healthier, though he suffered from weak lungs and constant fatigue. In this cause, he recruited the great Catholic princes, nobles and prelates, signed the treaty of Joinville with Spain, and prepared to make war on the "heretics". [141] This may be particularly true for Catherine as an Italian woman ruling in France; several historians argue that she was disliked by her French subjects, who labelled her "the Italian woman". At the same moment, eight members of the Guise family were rounded up, including the Duke of Guise's brother, Louis II, Cardinal of Guise, who Henry's men hacked to death the next day in the palace dungeons. Her three other daughters did survive to adulthood. [4] Some time later, she gave birth to Francis . After Franciss death, Catherine wrote to her daughter, Ma fille (my daughter) mamie (my friend), commend yourself to God, for you have seen me as happy as you are now, never knowing any sorrow but that I was not loved as much as I wished to be by the King your father, who honoured me more than I deserved, but I loved him so much that I was always in fear, as you know; and God has taken him from me and, not content with that, has deprived me of your brother.. [30] Diane never regarded Catherine as a threat. [12] The final one, the Santissima Annuziata delle Murate was her home for three years. [74] The wedding took place on 18 August 1572 at Notre-Dame, Paris. When Francis II died in 1560, she became regent on behalf of her 10-year-old son King Charles IX and was thus granted sweeping powers. They write new content and verify and edit content received from contributors. It was only after Leo's death in 1521, that his successor, Adrian VI, restored the duchy to its rightful owner, Francesco Maria I della Rovere. Religious reconciliation was the conveners purpose of the Colloquy of Poissy (SeptemberNovember 1561). Victoire (24 June 1556 17 August 1556). Catherine ordered him to court and had him imprisoned as soon as he arrived. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Henry III's assassination ended nearly three centuries of Valois rule and brought the Bourbon dynasty into power. "[111] Catherine's immediate reaction is not known; but on Christmas Day, she told a friar, "Oh, wretched man! Knecht 1998, p. 28, gives the English translation ""The girl has been given to me stark naked." Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree. "[79] Historians have suggested that Catherine and her advisers expected a Huguenot uprising to avenge the attack on Coligny. In the Treaty of Nemours, signed on 7 July 1585, he was forced to give in to all the League's demands, even that he pay its troops. Most of the Orsini men were soldiers, a profession which allowed them to amass huge territories around Rome and Naples. Babelon, Jean-Pierre. In the words of historian Jules Michelet, "St Bartholomew was not a day, but a season". When Clarice's husband, Lorenzo, was in Milan as the godfather of the Sforza Prince Gian Galeazzo II Maria, he wrote the following letter to her: I have arrived here safely and am quite well. During his reign, Henry excluded Catherine from state affairs and instead showered favours on his chief mistress, Diane de Poitiers, who wielded much influence over him. Catherine sent her only enough "to put food on her table". Do Not Sell or Share My Personal Information. "[113] He added that she had no sooner died than she was treated with as much consideration as a dead goat. [58] On 19 March 1563, the Edict of Amboise, also known as the Edict of Pacification, ended the war. He will not be spoken of again. Knecht 1998, p. 8 (dates of death); Hritier 1963, p. 15 (cause of Madeleine's death). [51] In January 1562, Catherine issued the tolerant Edict of Saint-Germain in a further attempt to build bridges with the Protestants. Catherine ended the first civil war in March 1563 by the Edict of Amboise, an attenuated version of the Edict of January. In 1536, Henry's older brother, Francis, caught a chill after a game of tennis, contracted a fever and died shortly after, leaving Henry the heir. [39] For the moment, Catherine worked with the Guises out of necessity. She shared the same birthmark as her father, so Catherine had Nostradamus' father, a physician, attempt to remove the birthmark from Clarissa. Catherine and the king then beat her, ripping her nightclothes and pulling out handfuls of her hair.[71]. L'Estoile wrote: "those close to her believed that her life had been shortened by displeasure over her son's deed. This she envisaged in terms of the marriage of her daughter Marguerite to the young Protestant leader, Henry of Navarre (later Henry IV of France), and alliance with England through the marriage of her son Henry, duc dAnjou, or, failing him, his younger brother Franois, duc dAlenon, to Queen Elizabeth. At times he even felt well enough to dictate letters and listen to music. [110] Immediately after the murder of Guise, Henry entered Catherine's bedroom on the floor below and announced, "Please forgive me. Margaret later recalled that she saved the lives of several prominent Huguenots during the massacre by keeping them in her rooms and refusing to admit the assassins. Heritier, 48, has the twins' deaths the other way round. [32] Catherine brought her up with her own children at the French court, while Mary of Guise governed Scotland as her daughter's regent.[33]. Catherines first great political crisis came in July 1559 upon the accidental death of Henry II, a traumatic bereavement from which it is doubtful that she ever recovered. "The Louvre: Royal Residence and Temple of the Arts". [102] The monarchy had lost control of the country, and was in no position to assist England in the face of the coming Spanish attack. "[123] Catherine gradually introduced changes to the traditional entertainments: for example, she increased the prominence of dance in the shows that climaxed each series of entertainments. Catherine appointed a mixed commission of moderates that devised two formulas of consummate ambiguity, by which they hoped to resolve the basic, Eucharist controversy. The members of the Flying Squadron were supposedly so beautiful and so good at their jobs that they were known to make men see God, or at least worship Him in a different way. Her essentially moderate influence was first perceptible during the Conspiracy of Amboise (March 1560), an instance of tumultuous petitioning by the Huguenot gentry, primarily against Guisard persecution in the name of the King. However, he denied ever providing such advice. The problems facing the monarchy were complex and daunting. In fact, a large population of Italiansbankers, silk-weavers, philosophers, musicians, and artists, including Leonardo da Vincihad emigrated to France to promote the burgeoning Renaissance. Catherines letters were often filled with advice and instructions. This rejection was one basic element in the outbreak of civil war in 1562, in whichas she had predictedCatherine fell, politically, into the clutches of the extremists, because the Catholic crown might protect its Protestant subjects in law but could not defend them in arms. Webdecade of Catherine de Medicis marriage was attributed to Henry II, who was born with hypospadias and chordee. She was born with her father's birthmark on He planned to block Henry of Navarre's succession and place Henry's Catholic uncle Cardinal Charles de Bourbon on the throne instead. His designs for the Valois Tapestries celebrate the ftes, picnics, and mock battles of the "magnificent" entertainments hosted by Catherine. For a summary of the fluctuations in Catherine's historical reputation, see the preface to R. J. Knecht's. Sebastian instead had Clarissa poisoned to fulfill Nostradamus' prophecy that Mary's arrival at the French court would cause Catherine's firstborn's death; Clarissa was technically Catherine's first child, and her death supposedly saved the sickly Prince Francis, the oldest legitimate child, from his own death. 500: Catherine de Medici The Mother of three Kings, 500: Catherine de Medici Patron of the arts and follower of the occult. She also met her daughter Elisabeth at Bayonne near the Spanish border, amidst lavish court festivities. Henry was a prize catch for Catherine, who, despite her wealth, was of common origin. Her merciful Edict of Amboise (March 1560) was followed in May by that of Romorantin, which distinguished heresy from sedition, thereby detaching faith from allegiance. The death of Pope Leo in 1521 briefly interrupted Medici power until Cardinal Giulio de' Medici was elected Pope Clement VII in 1523. Catherine was one of his godparents and was overjoyed to see her daughter again. Margaret outlived her former husband, her mother, her father and all her siblings. [107] The king's actions effectively ended her days of power. She retreated to her property at Agen and begged her mother for money. [146] As a result, some (more extreme) authors[147] believe Catherine to be the creator of the Black Mass, a Satanic inversion of the traditional Catholic Mass, although there is little to prove this aside from Jean Bodin's account in his book De la dmonomanie des sorciers. WebClarice Orsini (on the left) with her sister-in-law Bianca Maria de' Medici. The surgery removed part of the birthmark, but left Clarissa greatly disfigured due to the use of potions. She gave birth to ten children, of whom four sons and three daughters survived to marriageable age. WebClarissa Delacroix was born in 1539, the illegitimate daughter of Queen Catherine de Medici of France and King Henry II of Frances boyhood friend Richard Delacroix. Catherine would later be referred to contemptuously in France as the shopkeepers daughter. WebClarissa is the love child of the Catherine de' Medici, and her secret lover Richard Delacroix. In the words of historian R. J. Knecht, "she underestimated the strength of religious conviction, imagining that all would be well if only she could get the party leaders to agree". The last two daughters were twins; one of the twins, Joan, died during the delivery and the other, Victoire, died a few weeks later. She had always enjoyed her visits to Claude, and now that would never be the same. After Charles died in 1574, Catherine played a key role in the reign of her third son, Henry III. She was later captured after villagers accused her of stealing, and she was about to be hanged when King Henry's son Sebastian de Poitiers interceded and decided to bring her to court to face trial. When King Francis I died on 31 March 1547, Catherine became queen consort of France. Charles had been largely brought up at the French Court and Claude probably knew him well. Catherine, Diane, and Prince Francis all fainted. Years later, Diane, daughter of Henry II and Philippa Duci, had Catherine's remains reinterred in the Saint-Denis basilica in Paris. [135] Barbara Ketcham Wheaton and Stephen Mennell provided the definitive arguments against these claims. [91] Catherine cut Margaret out of her will and never saw her again. WebElisabeth is Catherine's "plain Jane" daughter. Author of. My name is Moniek and I am from the Netherlands. Clarissa de Medici. Within a month of Catherine's birth, both her parents were dead: Madeleine died on 28 April of puerperal fever, and Lorenzo died on 4 May. In 1556, Catherine nearly died giving birth to twin daughters, Jeanne and Victoire. Born Giulio de' Medici, Catherine's uncle took the name Clement VII upon becoming pope in 1523. Listed works of art included tapestries, hand-drawn maps, sculptures, rich fabrics, ebony furniture inlaid with ivory, sets of china, and Limoges pottery. Catherines daughters Elisabeth and Claude bore children who lived into adulthood, including King Charles IX of France, Prince Louis, and Prince Henri of France. Historian Frances Yates has called her "a great creative artist in festivals. Spouse: King Henry II. Clarissa Delacroix was born in 1539, the illegitimate daughter of Queen Catherine de Medici of France and King Henry II of France's boyhood friend Richard Delacroix. The complexity of Catherines position during these years cannot be briefly explained. Greg Bryk, an actor, played him. [13] Clement had no choice but to crown Charles of Habsburg as Holy Roman Emperor in return for his help in retaking the city. [46], When Catherine realized Francis was going to die, she made a pact with Antoine de Bourbon by which he would renounce his right to the regency of the future king, Charles IX, in return for the release of his brother Cond. In 1578, she took on the task of pacifying the south. Catherine now rallied both Huguenot and Catholic forces to retake Le Havre from the English. I see him rushing towards his ruin. Catherine de Medici was the daughter of Lorenzo di Piero de Medici, duca di Urbino, and Madeleine de La Tour dAuvergne, a Bourbon princess related to many of the French nobility. Subscribe to our free weekly newsletter and stay up to date on History of Royal Women's articles! One of her first acts was to force Diane de Poitiers to hand over the crown jewels and return the Chteau de Chenonceau to the crown. Catherine was born in Florence to Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, and Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne. Labouvie suggested that women's power was believed to be the ability to create and sustain life, whilst witches were believed to have the opposite power; that of attacking health, life and fertility. The papal nuncio Salviati observed, "it is only with difficulty that we can imagine there will be offspring physicians and those who know him well say that he has an extremely weak constitution and will not live long." [98] As Catherine put it, "peace is carried on a stick" (bton porte paix). Catherine succeeded in obtaining the regency for Charles IX, with Antoine de Bourbon, king of Navarre and first prince of the blood, as lieutenant general, to whom the Protestants vainly looked for leadership. Viscount Catherine's former lover and Clarissa's father was Richard DelaCroix. As a baby, she was given to Nostradamus' father who tried to remove the mark but only ended up making it worse. Catherine, who was said to have received the news without emotion, made a tearful visit to Coligny and promised to punish his attacker. Over the years, the two Queens were to maintain an energetic correspondence. [44], In June 1560, Michel de l'Hpital was appointed Chancellor of France. She even encouraged the king to spend more time with Catherine and sire more children. Catherines second great political crisis came with the premature death on December 5, 1560, of Francis II, whose royal authority the Guises had monopolized. [86], In 1576, in a move that endangered Henry's throne, Francis allied with the Protestant princes against the crown. Catherines dowry was considered too small and alliances between royalty and merchant families like the Medicis, however rich, were still unusual. [75] A smoking arquebus was discovered in a window, but the culprit had made his escape from the rear of the building on a waiting horse. [125], Catherine de' Medici's great love among the arts was architecture. Caron's vivid Mannerism, with its love of ceremonial and its preoccupation with massacres, reflects the neurotic atmosphere of the French court during the Wars of Religion. Charles and Claude had a happy marriage, and their close proximity to the French court meant that they were able to visit Catherine often. She shared the same birthmark as her father, so Catherine had Nostradamus father, a physician, attempt to remove the birthmark from Clarissa. [63] The war was ended by the Peace of Longjumeau of 2223 March 1568, but civil unrest and bloodshed continued. She died on January 5th, 1589 in Blois France. To save Catherines life, baby Joan dead or dying had her legs broken to remove her from her mothers womb. Seeing as they didn't know the other existed for the first 18 - to 20 years of their lives. Its principal purpose was to execute the edict and, through a meeting at Bayonne in June 1565, to seek to strengthen peaceful relations between the crown and Spain and to negotiate for Charless marriage to Elizabeth of Austria. WebDid Queen Catherine have an illegitimate daughter? Now she sought a marriage between Margaret and Henry III of Navarre, Jeanne's son, with the aim of uniting Valois and Bourbon interests. [23] This proved that Henry was fertile and added to the pressure on Catherine to produce a child. Clarice Orsini (c. 1453 29 July 1487) was the daughter of Jacopo (Giacomo) Orsini (see Orsini family), lord of Monterotondo and Bracciano, and his wife and cousin Maddalena Orsini. During this time, she presided over a distinctive late French Renaissance culture in all branches of the arts. [116] She was inspired by the example of her father-in-law, King Francis I of France, who had hosted the leading artists of Europe at his court, and by her Medici ancestors. At an early age, she was offered as a bride for her sisters widower King Philip II of Spain, but nothing came of that. However, three months after his coronation at Wawel Cathedral, Henry abandoned that throne and returned to France in order to become King of France. However, the death of her uncle Clement on 25 September 1534 undermined Catherine's standing in the French court.

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did catherine de medici have a daughter named clarissa (1)

    did catherine de medici have a daughter named clarissa

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