did catherine de medici have a daughter named clarissa (2023)

did catherine de medici have a daughter named clarissa

Catherine de Medici, wife to one French king and mother to three more, died at Blois in 1589. Was she not compelled to play strange parts to deceive first one and then the other, in order to guard, as she did, her sons, who successively reigned through the wise conduct of that shrewd woman? [121], The musical shows in particular allowed Catherine to express her creative gifts. He depended on Catherine and her team of secretaries until the last few weeks of her life. Mark Strage described these years as "the happiest of her entire life". She was born with her father's birthmark on Catherine believing her daughter had died in the forest, while Clarissa never knew who her birth parents were. [64] The Surprise of Meaux marked a turning point in Catherine's policy towards the Huguenots. Many historians have blamed Catherine for the attack on Coligny. Because Paris was held by enemies of the crown, Catherine had to be buried provisionally at Blois. [4] Some time later, she gave birth to Francis . Listed works of art included tapestries, hand-drawn maps, sculptures, rich fabrics, ebony furniture inlaid with ivory, sets of china, and Limoges pottery. By 1587, the Catholic backlash against the Protestants had become a campaign across Europe. Caron's vivid Mannerism, with its love of ceremonial and its preoccupation with massacres, reflects the neurotic atmosphere of the French court during the Wars of Religion. Clement summoned Catherine from her beloved convent to join him in Rome where he greeted her with open arms and tears in his eyes. Biography. In the Treaty of Nemours, signed on 7 July 1585, he was forced to give in to all the League's demands, even that he pay its troops. The complexity of Catherines position during these years cannot be briefly explained. Moving on to the fortress of Carlat, Margaret took a lover called d'Aubiac. Orphaned within days, Catherine was highly educated, trained, and disciplined by nuns in Florence and Rome and married in 1533 by her uncle, Pope Clement VII, to Henry, duc dOrlans, who inherited the French crown from his father, Francis I, in April 1547. As dauphine, Catherine was expected to provide a future heir to the throne. Catherine's marriage was arranged by her uncle Pope Clement VII. She went on to bear Henry a further eight children, seven of whom survived infancy, including the future Charles IX (born 27 June 1550); the future Henry III (born 19 September 1551); and Francis, Duke of Anjou (born 18 March 1555) and Claude (born 12 November 1547). WebBorn into the one of the great families of the Italian Renaissance, Clarice Orsini was the daughter of Jacopo Orsini of Monterotondo, a man whose family had made its fortune as mercenaries. Her eldest daughter was Elisabeth, and she was born on 2 April 1545. Catherine was overjoyed at the match, but her joy was overshadowed by the death of her husband. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). She was later captured after villagers accused her of stealing, and she was about to be hanged when King Henry's son Sebastian de Poitiers interceded and decided to bring her to court to face trial. On one occasion, in March 1578, she lectured him for six hours about his dangerously subversive behaviour. "[126] After Henry II's death, Catherine set out to immortalise her husband's memory and to enhance the grandeur of the Valois monarchy through a series of costly building projects. The most famous of Catherines daughters was born on 14 May 1553. Therefore, her policies may be seen as desperate measures to keep the House of Valois on the throne at all costs and her patronage of the arts as an attempt to glorify a monarchy whose prestige was in steep decline. At the time, Henry was besieging Paris with the King of Navarre, who would succeed him as Henry IV of France. Her merciful Edict of Amboise (March 1560) was followed in May by that of Romorantin, which distinguished heresy from sedition, thereby detaching faith from allegiance. [67] "We have come to the determination to die, all of us", Jeanne wrote to Catherine, "rather than abandon our God, and our religion. At the meeting of the Estates, Henry thanked Catherine for all she had done. She may have owed her change of fortune to the physician Jean Fernel, who may have noticed slight abnormalities in the couple's sexual organs and advised them how to solve the problem. Catherine pressed Jeanne d'Albret to attend court. She begged him to ensure that Elisabeth eats but two meals each day and only bread in between meals. Tragically, Elisabeth had died two weeks earlier after giving birth prematurely. [35] There is reason to believe she was party to the decision when on 23 August Charles IX is said to have ordered, "Then kill them all! She shared the same birthmark as her father, so Catherine had Nostradamus' father, a physician, attempt to remove the birthmark from Clarissa. L'Estoile wrote: "those close to her believed that her life had been shortened by displeasure over her son's deed. [80], The slaughter in Paris lasted for almost a week. Catherine de Medici was the queen consort of Henry II of France (154759) and regent of France. When Catherine found this out, she had her daughter brought from her bed. Born: April 13, 1519, in Florence, Italy. [63] The war was ended by the Peace of Longjumeau of 2223 March 1568, but civil unrest and bloodshed continued. Surgeons saved her life by breaking the legs of Jeanne, who died in her womb. In October 1586, therefore, he had Margaret locked up in the Chteau d'Usson. As the siege dragged on, voices called for Catherine to be killed and exposed naked and chained to the city walls. Catherines dowry was considered too small and alliances between royalty and merchant families like the Medicis, however rich, were still unusual. WebClarice di Piero de' Medici (14891528) [1] was the daughter of Piero di Lorenzo de' Medici and Alfonsina Orsini . "[68] Catherine called Jeanne, whose decision to rebel posed a dynastic threat to the Valois, "the most shameless woman in the world". [136][137] They point out that Catherine's father-in-law, King Francis I, and the flower of the French aristocracy had dined at some of Italy's most lite tables during the king's Italian campaigns (and that an earlier generation had done so during King Charles VIII's invasion of 1494); that a vast Italian entourage had visited France for the wedding of Catherine de' Medici's father to her French-born mother; and that she had little influence at court until her husband's death because he was so besotted by his mistress, Diane de Poitiers. [13] Clement had no choice but to crown Charles of Habsburg as Holy Roman Emperor in return for his help in retaking the city. Unlike the proposals of Poissy, the edict was law, which the Protestants accepted and the Catholics rejected. I have done to him what he was going to do to me. Both of her parents died within weeks of her birth, leaving her an orphan. Heritier, 48, has the twins' deaths the other way round. [17] Suitors, however, lined up for her hand, including James V of Scotland who sent the Duke of Albany to Clement to conclude a marriage in April and November 1530. When King Francis I died on 31 March 1547, Catherine became queen consort of France. She quickly terminated the second (September 1567March 1568) with the Peace of Longjumeau, a renewal of Amboise. Blunt, 98, 100. Catherine could not hold back her sobs. [75] A smoking arquebus was discovered in a window, but the culprit had made his escape from the rear of the building on a waiting horse. Over the years, Catherine gave birth to ten children of which five were daughters. Henry's death in 1559 thrust Catherine into the political arena as mother of the frail 15-year-old King Francis II. She herself supervised their education. Knecht 1998, p. 28, gives likely incorrect dates of 25 September 1533 for the death of Pope Clement VII and 12 October for the election of Pope Paul III. The treaty became known as the Peace of Monsieur because it was thought that Francis had forced it on the crown. Of the chateaus she designed herselfincluding the TuileriesChenonceaux was her unfinished masterpiece. Some historians have excused Catherine from blame for the worst decisions of the crown, but evidence for her ruthlessness can be found in her letters. He cared for her and also arranged her union to Henry, Duke of Orlans, the second son of King Francis I of France, in early 1533. Catherine de' Medici's parents die when she was a baby; however, it was from separate sicknesses. [] In short, she was a true daughter of France, having good mind and ability, which she proved by seconding wisely and ably her husband, M. de Lorraine, in the government of his seigneuries and principalities.1. Margaret had put up a good show for the Queen and Joan wrote enthusiastically to her son with one point, If she embraces our religions, I may say that we are the happiest persons in the world Margaret could not have opposed this match with Henry more, but it was going to happen whether she wanted or not. Catherine, who was said to have received the news without emotion, made a tearful visit to Coligny and promised to punish his attacker. At the age of fifty-nine, she embarked on an eighteen-month journey around the south of France to meet Huguenot leaders face to face. Under Salic law, by which only males could ascend the throne, the Huguenot Henry of Navarre now became heir presumptive to the French crown.[35]. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree. They were usually dedicated to the ideal of peace in the realm and based on mythological themes. They depict events held at Fontainebleau in 1564; at Bayonne in 1565 for the summit meeting with the Spanish court; and at the Tuileries in 1573 for the visit of the Polish ambassadors who presented the Polish crown to Catherine's son Henry of Anjou. She also met her daughter Elisabeth at Bayonne near the Spanish border, amidst lavish court festivities. She was crowned in the Basilica of Saint-Denis on 10 June 1549. Catherine sent her only enough "to put food on her table". [97] By 1585, Henry III had no choice but to go to war against the League. As Guise entered the king's chamber, the Forty-five plunged their blades into his body, and he died at the foot of the king's bed. [29] Henry gave the Chteau of Chenonceau, which Catherine had wanted for herself, to Diane de Poitiers, who took her place at the centre of power, dispensing patronage and accepting favours. Catherine de Medici was best known for being the queen consort of Henry II of France (154759) and regent of France. Catherines second great political crisis came with the premature death on December 5, 1560, of Francis II, whose royal authority the Guises had monopolized. Elizabeth I was treated with similar suspicionshe too entertained questionable characters (such as her advisor, John Dee), and produced no official heir. She gave birth to ten children, of whom four sons and three daughters survived to marriageable age. Henry wrote a note to Villeroy, which began: "Villeroy, I remain very well contented with your service; do not fail however to go away to your house where you will stay until I send for you; do not seek the reason for this my letter, but obey me." Did Queen Catherine of France have a deformed daughter? Henry IV was later reported to have said of Catherine: I ask you, what could a woman do, left by the death of her husband with five little children on her arms, and two families of France who were thinking of grasping the crownour own [the Bourbons] and the Guises? [96] The death of the heir to the throne in 1584 prompted the Duke of Guise to assume the leadership of the Catholic League. [134] The end of the Valois dynasty so soon after her death brought a change in priorities. Catherine outlived all her children except Henry III, who died seven months after her, and Margaret, who inherited her robust health. WebHistorically, by Louis, she had two daughters, who were influential members of the royal household- there's no mention of a son like in the show, Sebastian . Pettegree, 154; Hoogvliet, 105. [76] Coligny was carried to his lodgings at the Htel de Bthisy, where the surgeon Ambroise Par removed a bullet from his elbow and amputated a damaged finger with a pair of scissors. [2] In return, she was blamed for the persecutions carried out under her sons' rules, in particular the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of 1572, during which thousands of Huguenots were killed in France. Eight months later, Jacques Clment stabbed Henry III to death. Catherine had no more children. This is the sixth, and it will focus on her relationships with her daughters. WebPrincess Claude of Valois was born on November 12, 1547 in Fontainebleau, France, as the 2nd daughter & 3rd child born to King Henry II & his wife Queen Catherine de Medici. On 34 April 1559, Henry signed the Peace of Cateau-Cambrsis with the Holy Roman Empire and England, ending a long period of Italian Wars. Victoire (24 June 1556 17 August 1556). When Jeanne arrived in Paris to buy clothes for the wedding, she was taken ill and died on 9 June 1572, aged forty-three. Historica Wiki is a FANDOM Games Community. "[106] As usual, Catherine advised the king, who had fled the city in the nick of time, to compromise and live to fight another day. Born in Florence, she was the granddaughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, niece of Pope Leo X and sister to Lorenzo II de' Medici. "[100], Henry was unable to fight the Catholics and the Protestants at once, both of whom had stronger armies than his own. Within a month Louis de Bourbon, Prince of Cond, and Admiral Gaspard de Coligny had raised an army of 1,800. Because their birth very nearly cost Catherine her life, the king's physician advised the king that there should be no more children; therefore, Henry II stopped visiting his wife's bedroom and spent all his time with his longtime mistress, Diane de Poitiers. Catherines letters were often filled with advice and instructions. Yes, Catherine De Medici has an illegitimate child named Clarissa Delacroix, after her affair with Richard Delacroix. Prince Henry showed no interest in Catherine as a wife; instead, he openly took mistresses. Victoire died just under two months later on 17 August. The last two daughters were twins; one of the twins, Joan, died during the delivery and the other, Victoire, died a few weeks later. According to a contemporary chronicler, when Catherine was born, her parents were "as pleased as if it had been a boy". Despite her considerable power, Leeza is the least favorite of Catherine's children, and underneath her tough facade is a legitimate desire for her mother's affections. Catherine de' Medici married Henry, Duke of Orlans, the future Henry II of France, in Marseille on 28 October 1533. Others point to the Guise family or a Spanish-papal plot to end Coligny's influence on the king. Blunt calls Caron's style "perhaps the purest known type of Mannerism in its elegant form, appropriate to an exquisite but neurotic society." Franois Clouet drew and painted portraits of all Catherine's family and of many members of the court. [104] Philip II of Spain prepared for an invasion of England. Margaret of Valois was the third daughter and seventh child of King Henry II of France and his Italian queen, Catherine de Medici. In 1536, Henry's older brother, Francis, caught a chill after a game of tennis, contracted a fever and died shortly after, leaving Henry the heir. Catherine adopted a moderate stance and spoke against the Guise persecutions, though she had no particular sympathy for the Huguenots, whose beliefs she never shared. Clarissa Delacroix was born in 1539, the illegitimate daughter of Queen Catherine de Medici of France and King Henry II of France's boyhood friend Richard Delacroix. WebClarissa Delacroix (1539-1557) was the illegitimate daughter of Queen Catherine de Medici and the French noble Richard Delacroix. [74] The wedding took place on 18 August 1572 at Notre-Dame, Paris. However, Catherine's ability to bear children failed to improve her marriage. Catherine insisted on visiting the field herself and when warned of the dangers laughed, "My courage is as great as yours". Three of her sons became kings of France, while two of her daughters married kings and one married a duke. Nevertheless, she was devastated at Elisabeths loss. To save Catherines life, baby Joan dead or dying had her legs broken to remove her from her mothers womb. It was only after Leo's death in 1521, that his successor, Adrian VI, restored the duchy to its rightful owner, Francesco Maria I della Rovere. This rejection was one basic element in the outbreak of civil war in 1562, in whichas she had predictedCatherine fell, politically, into the clutches of the extremists, because the Catholic crown might protect its Protestant subjects in law but could not defend them in arms. Charles and Claude had a happy marriage, and their close proximity to the French court meant that they were able to visit Catherine often. Claude was raised alongside her sister Elisabeth, the future Queen of Spain, and sister-in-law Queen Mary of Scotland. Historians regard the occasion as an early example of Catherine's statesmanship. The regency was traditionally the preserve of the princes of the blood. I've never thought that, as they say, you eat little children. Some sources claim that Victoire was the one who was stillborn. Its principal purpose was to execute the edict and, through a meeting at Bayonne in June 1565, to seek to strengthen peaceful relations between the crown and Spain and to negotiate for Charless marriage to Elizabeth of Austria. King Henry took part in the jousting, sporting Diane's black-and-white colours. She travelled widely across the kingdom, enforcing his authority and trying to head off war. In, This page was last edited on 29 April 2023, at 08:48. The League took control of much of northern France to secure French ports for his armada. When Clarice's husband, Lorenzo, was in Milan as the godfather of the Sforza Prince Gian Galeazzo II Maria, he wrote the following letter to her: I have arrived here safely and am quite well. In fact, a large population of Italiansbankers, silk-weavers, philosophers, musicians, and artists, including Leonardo da Vincihad emigrated to France to promote the burgeoning Renaissance. Catherine ordered him to court and had him imprisoned as soon as he arrived. [8] King Francis wanted Catherine to be raised at the French court, but Pope Leo refused, claiming he wanted her to marry Ippolito de' Medici. Henry of Navarre, son of Jeanne dAlbret, and Margaret of Valois, Catherines daughter. His dying words were "oh, my mother" The day before he died, he named Catherine regent, since his brother and heir, Henry the Duke of Anjou, was in the PolishLithuanian Commonwealth, where he had been elected king the year before. In 1585, Margaret abandoned her husband and was even imprisoned. He shouted at her, "Your words, Madam, have led us all to this butchery. The start of Season One, in 1557, Diane de Poitiers was actually 58 years old. "[90] The death of her youngest son was a calamity for Catherine's dynastic dreams. Clarissa Delacroix was born in 1539, the illegitimate daughter of Queen Catherine de Medici of France and King Henry II of France's boyhood friend Richard Delacroix. WebThe marriage was not popular in France. Her marriage to Henry would remain childless. Essentially, however, there exists no concrete proof that either woman took part in the occult, and it is now believed that Catherine's trouble in providing an heir was in fact due to Henry II's penile deformity.[142]. Biography Early Life In many parts of France the rule of nobles held sway rather than that of the crown. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. WebClarissa Delacroix was born in 1539, the illegitimate daughter of Queen Catherine de Medici of France and King Henry II of France's boyhood friend Richard Delacroix. She gave birth to ten children, of whom four sons and three daughters survived to marriageable age. Knecht 1998, p. 28, gives the English translation ""The girl has been given to me stark naked." Catherine, in bed with a lung infection, had been kept in the dark. She is also known for her involvement in the Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day (1572)part of the CatholicHuguenot wars (Wars of Religion; 156298)and for being mother to three kings of France. Catherine ended the first civil war in March 1563 by the Edict of Amboise, an attenuated version of the Edict of January. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Catherine-de-Medici, World History Encyclopedia - Catherine de' Medici, History Learning Site - Biography of Catherine de Medici, Lorenzo di Piero de Medici, duca di Urbino. [51] In January 1562, Catherine issued the tolerant Edict of Saint-Germain in a further attempt to build bridges with the Protestants. In 1558, she was considered for Don Carlos, the eldest son of King Philip II of Spain. Catherine was heard yelling at her for taking lovers. [70] After Catherine's daughter Elisabeth died in childbirth in 1568, she had touted her youngest daughter Margaret as a bride for Philip II of Spain. Henry arrived in the bedroom with King Francis, who is said to have stayed until the marriage was consummated. The papal nuncio Salviati observed, "it is only with difficulty that we can imagine there will be offspring physicians and those who know him well say that he has an extremely weak constitution and will not live long." [47] As a result, when Francis died on 5 December 1560, the Privy Council appointed Catherine as governor of France (gouvernante de France), with sweeping powers. WebDuring this time, Catherine had an affair with Richard, and had a baby girl with him, who became the castle 'ghost', Clarissa. 15 Feb 1471, d. 28 Dec 1503. Catherine now rallied both Huguenot and Catholic forces to retake Le Havre from the English. She presided over his council, decided policy, and controlled state business and patronage. "[111] Catherine's immediate reaction is not known; but on Christmas Day, she told a friar, "Oh, wretched man! From that moment, she abandoned compromise for a policy of repression. [40] Nevertheless, all his official acts began with the words: "This being the good pleasure of the Queen, my lady-mother, and I also approving of every opinion that she holdeth, am content and command that". [120], Beyond portraiture, little is known about the painting at Catherine de' Medici's court. Her two children: Franoise de Brz and Louise de Brz. The imperial ambassador reported that in the presence of guests, Henry would sit on Diane's lap and play the guitar, chat about politics, or fondle her breasts. [99] "Take care", she wrote to the king, "especially about your person. Our editors will review what youve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Through the intervention of Doctor Jean Fernel, the royal couple went on to have 10 children. She was born at the royal Chteau de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, where she spent her childhood alongside her sisters, the princesses Elisabeth and Claude. For a summary of the fluctuations in Catherine's historical reputation, see the preface to R. J. Knecht's. He was also healthier, though he suffered from weak lungs and constant fatigue. In desperation, Catherine tried every known trick for getting pregnant, such as placing cow dung and ground stags' antlers on her "source of life", and drinking mule's urine. [53] Guise, who called the massacre "a regrettable accident", was cheered as a hero in the streets of Paris while the Huguenots called for revenge. Your email address will not be published. She was not primarily responsible for the more far-reaching Treaty of Saint-Germain (August 1570), but she succeeded in disgracing the Guises. The Huguenots retreated to the fortified stronghold of La Rochelle on the west coast, where Jeanne d'Albret and her fifteen-year-old son, Henry of Bourbon, joined them. Claude was born on 12 November 1547, and she too suffered from childhood ailments, like her elder sister. [55] The royal army struck back quickly and laid siege to Huguenot-held Rouen. [19] Clement visited the newlyweds in bed the next morning and added his blessings to the night's proceedings. Language links are at the top of the page across from the title. Jeanne d'Albret wrote to her son, Henry: "I am not free to talk with either the King or Madame, only the Queen Mother, who goads me [, Holt, 83. In an age of civil war and declining respect for the monarchy, she sought to bolster royal prestige through lavish cultural display. He cites Cloulas (. In the words of historian R. J. Knecht, "she underestimated the strength of religious conviction, imagining that all would be well if only she could get the party leaders to agree". Died in infancy. The surgery removed part of the birthmark, but left Clarissa greatly disfigured due to the use of potions. A poem by Ronsard, engraved on its base, tells the reader not to wonder that so small a vase can hold so large a heart, since Henry's real heart resides in Catherine's breast.[132]. Many portraits in her collection were by Jean Clouet (14801541) and his son Franois Clouet (c.1510 1572). Corrections? She was just 11 years old when she married Charles, Duke of Lorraine in January 1559 in a splendid ceremony at the Notre-Dame. Young Elisabeth constantly suffered from childhood ailments and had not inherited her mothers robust health. One of her first acts was to force Diane de Poitiers to hand over the crown jewels and return the Chteau de Chenonceau to the crown. Once in control of the royal purse, she launched a programme of artistic patronage that lasted for three decades. Catherine asked Henry to act before Margaret brought shame on them again. On 8 September 1588 at Blois, where the court had assembled for a meeting of the Estates, Henry dismissed all his ministers without warning. He was tried in November, found guilty of offences against the crown, and sentenced to death. In August 1563 she declared the King of age in the Parlement of Rouen and, from April 1564 to January 1566, conducted him on a marathon itinerary round France. Margaret would later write that she trembled whenever she was summoned by her mother. After Charles died in 1574, Catherine played a key role in the reign of her third son, Henry III. Born on 13th April 1519, Catherine is still remembered as the 'Black Queen' of France, foe of all Protestants, and the Italian daughter of a merchant who dragged France into a series of bloody, religious civil wars. Viscount Catherine's former lover and Clarissa's father was Richard DelaCroix. She was also an influential patron Catherine travelled to Chtellerault where she bid farewell to her 13-year-old daughter. The fourteen-year-old couple left their wedding ball at midnight to perform their nuptial duties. [135] Barbara Ketcham Wheaton and Stephen Mennell provided the definitive arguments against these claims. [3] In practice, her authority was limited by the effects of the civil wars. Catherine de Medici was the daughter of Lorenzo di Piero de Medici, duca di Urbino, and Madeleine de La Tour dAuvergne, a Bourbon princess related to many of the French nobility. Thus began her lifelong struggleexplicit in her correspondencewith these extremists who, supported by Spain and the papacy, sought to dominate the crown and extinguish its independence in the commingled interests of European Catholicism and personal aggrandizement. Nevertheless, the wedding did take place, at Nice in 1533. Greg Bryk, an actor, played him. She died on 27 March 1615.2. What was Catherine de Medici best known for? During his reign, Henry excluded Catherine from state affairs and instead showered favours on his chief mistress, Diane de Poitiers, who wielded much influence over him. After becoming pregnant once, Catherine had no trouble doing so again. WebCatherine's mother died when she was two-weeks-old and her father soon afterwards. The massacre lit the fuse that sparked the French Wars of Religion. Philip II excused himself from the occasion. [43] Others they drowned in the river or strung up around the battlements while Catherine and the court watched. She was one of the most influential personalities of the CatholicHuguenot wars (Wars of Religion; 156298). They witnessed the first three civil wars and her desperate struggle against the Catholic extremists for the independence of the crown, the maintenance of peace, and the enforcement of limited toleration. On 12 May 1588, they set up barricades in the streets and refused to take orders from anyone except the Duke of Guise. Huguenot writers later accused Catherine of murdering her with poisoned gloves. Catherine and the king then beat her, ripping her nightclothes and pulling out handfuls of her hair.[71]. Nevertheless, the Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, signed on 8 August 1570 because the royal army ran out of cash, conceded wider toleration to the Huguenots than ever before. Meanwhile, Cond raised an army and in autumn 1560 began attacking towns in the south. Author of. He sought the support of France's constitutional bodies and worked closely with Catherine to defend the law in the face of the growing anarchy. In 1556, Catherine nearly died giving birth to twin daughters, Jeanne and Victoire. His troops surprised the rebels and killed many of them on the spot, including the commander, La Renaudie.

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